Language: Perfect tenses, had walked, etc. Inappropriate shifts in verb tense. Commas in items in series. Commas and introductory elements. Underlining, quotation marks, and italics in titles. Expand, combine and reduce sentences.
Vocabulary: Context. Root words. Figurative language. Interpret idioms, adages and proverbs. Distinguish between words, smile, smirk. Distinguish differences among synonyms. Specialized words in social studies and science.
Source: “CCSSI (
Standards Initiative) for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies and Science.” March 10, 2010, p. 12, 13. You will find the standards at http://www.corestandards.org/. Common Core State